Interference statistics in a random mmWave ad hoc network

Wireless communication at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies is attractive for cellular, local area, and ad hoc networks due to the potential for channels with large bandwidths. As a byproduct of directional beamforming and propagation differences, some studies have claimed that mmWavenetworks will be noise rather than interference limited. This paper presents a derivation of the instantaneous interference-to-noise ratio (INR) distribution of a mmWave ad hoc network. Randomnetwork model of transmitters represented by a Poisson point process with a narrowband channel model is used to derive an approximation of the INR distribution.

The analysis shows that the shape of the INR distribution is determined largely by the line-of-sight interferers, which depends on the overallnetwork density and building blockage. A main conclusion drawn is that even with highly directional beamforming, interference can only sometimes be neglected in an ad hoc network. With a reasonable choice of system parameters, the interference is nearly always stronger than the noise power in densenetworks.

Hash-Based Anonymous Secure Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is composed of multiple wireless mobile devices in which an infrastructure less network with dynamic topology is built based on wireless communication technologies. Novel applications such as location-based services and personal communication Apps used by mobile users with handheld wireless devices utilize MANET environments. In consequence, communication anonymity and message security have become critical issues for MANET environments.

In this study, a novel secure routing protocol with communication anonymity, named as Hash-based Anonymous Secure Routing (HASR) protocol, is proposed to support identity anonymity, location anonymity and route anonymity, and defend against major security threats such as replay attack, spoofing, route maintenance attack, and denial of service (DoS) attack. Security analyses show that HASR can achieve both communication anonymity and message security with efficient performance in MANET environments.

A Study on Energy Saving and co2 Emission Reduction on Signal Countdown Extension by Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Research on the broadcasting of signal countdown messages (SCMs) to vehicles via vehicular ad hocnetwork (VANET) technology has shown that it can reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption; however, past studies have lacked consideration of car following and vehicle gliding mode. In this paper, two green driving suggestion models, namely, the Maximize Throughput Model (MaxTM) and the Minimize Acceleration and Deceleration Model (MinADM), are proposed to minimize the CO2 emissions by considering real-time traffic information nearby the intersection. The two proposed strategies are compared with an open traffic light control model (OTLCM).

The main facts this paper demonstrate are that traffic models lack consideration of car following, which would make the simulation result unrealistic, that the proposed MaxTM can reduce more CO2 emissions than the MinADM and the OTLCM, and the total travel time in the MaxTM is also better than the other two models so that the general traffic performance can be improved. Simulation results show that the performance of CO2emissions of the MaxTM is 5%-102% better than the MinADM and 13%-209% better than the OTLCM in the simulation cases, and the performance of CO2 emissions of the MaxTM is 8%-14% better than the MinADM and 15%-231% better than the OTLCM in the real traffic cases.

Throughput Analysis of Cooperative Communication in Wireless Ad HocNetworks With Frequency Reuse

In this paper, we investigate the network throughput achieved by both spatial diversity and spatial frequency reuse in a wireless ad hoc network with randomly positioned single-hop source-destination pairs and relays. Compared with conventional direct transmissions, cooperative communication can enhance single-link transmission reliability but reduce network-wide spatial frequency reuse due to relay transmissions. To study the tradeoff between these two competing effects, we construct a geographically constrained region for relay selection based on channel state information.

The networkthroughput, defined as the product of the success probability of each link and the expected number of concurrent transmissions, is derived as a function of the total number of links, relay density, size of relay selection region, and distance between the source and destination. The performance analysis is carried out for both selection combining and maximum ratio combining at the destination. Such analytical results can evaluate the effectiveness of cooperative communication and provide useful insights on the design of large-scale networks. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to validate the performance analysis.

Upper Bound on the Ergodic Rate Density of ALOHA Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

We present a novel upper bound on the Ergodic Rate Density (ERD) of ALOHA wireless ad-hocnetworks. Our analysis uses a proper model of the physical layer together with an abstraction of higher communication layers. The novel bound is very general and supports various system models including for example, beamforming, spatial multiplexing, different fading models and different power control schemes. We also derive a closed form expression for the maximal gap between the novel bound and a known lower bound on the ERD. This maximal gap holds for any network that operates below the optimal density.

This expression is simple to evaluate and only depends on the path loss factor. For example, for a path loss factor of α = 3 the novel upper bound is proved to be at most 31% higher than the lower bound (and hence also from the actual ERD). The usefulness and the generality of the novel bound is demonstrated by applications in multiple-antenna schemes. In particular, we study the optimization of the number of transmitted spatial streams in a MIMO network and derive the scaling of the ERD as the number of antennas grows. The results are further demonstrated using extensive simulations.

Outage probability analysis of multiple input multiple output ad-hoc networks with random topology

Outage probability performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) ad-hoc network with quantised beamforming and finite rate feedback is analysed with the assumption that the nodes are uniformly distributed with random topology. In quantised beamforming, each receiver sends the label of the best beamforming vector obtained from the codebook to the transmitter through a finite rate limited feedback. The code book is shared between the desired users to prevent decoding of other user’s information in a MIMO ad-hoc network.

In such a practical environment, feedback links can only convey finite number of bits, from which transmit beamformer designs are investigated using either the outage probability or average signal to interference ratio as the figure of merit. In this study, a mathematical analysis for the estimation of the interference power statistics and the corresponding outage probability in MIMO wireless ad-hoc networks with random position of interference nodes is carried out. In lieu of validating the obtained simulation results, theoretical results have also been compared.

Simulating a proactive ad-hoc network protocol for Federated Satellite Systems

Novel distributed space mission concepts such as fractionation and federation promise to transform the design and operations approach of future missions. These paradigms require robust communicationsnetworking among other technologies. For the first time this paper explores the specifics of communications network protocols to enable Federated Satellite Systems using an opportunistic resource exchange frame open to all kinds of missions. Within satellite federations, participant spacecraft trade resources on a voluntary basis open to collaborative and/or commercial returns. The heterogeneous, mobile, flexible and scalable environment of satellite federations requires networkingtechnologies capable of handling autonomous node discovery and frequent link disruptions.

This work leverages existing Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking techniques to propose an FSS network protocol concept making use of OSLR neighbor sensing and store-carry-and-forward BATMAN routing concepts combined with link availability assessments and predictive topology routing. The performance of this protocol is tested through a dedicated network simulator and the FSS simulation toolkit. Results show the benefits of using FSS under this protocol. For a LEO-based scenario, average content delivery latency is improved from 41 minutes to 3.7 minutes by full usage of federated network benefits. Intermediate scenarios, such as 50% time network usage, present an average latency of 18 minutes. The paper ends by highlighting conclusions and next steps for the development of space communications protocols suitable for FSS.

CRT-KM: Chinese remainder theorem based key management scheme for securing ad-hoc networks

Providing security for Dynamic Cluster based Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET) is a vital task to improve network security with less compromising mobility and with reduced dedicated Data occupancy. Key generation, distribution and authentication are major tasks of a key management system.

A flexible and strong model is required to handle key management since dynamic ad-hoc networks are more prone to many kinds of hacking activity. In this paper a new procedure is implemented using Chinese remainder Theorem based Key-management (CRT-KM) and it is compared with one existing ID-Based Multiple Key Management system (IMKM). The performances are compared interms of parameters like mobility, Overhead message; security and power consumption.

Medical Data Compression and Transmission in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

A wireless ad hoc network (WANET) is a type of wireless network aimed to be deployed in a disaster area in order to collect data of patients and improve medical facilities. The WANETs are composed of several small nodes scattered in the disaster area. The nodes are capable of sending (wirelessly) the collected medical data to the base stations. The limited battery power of nodes and the transmission of huge medical data require an energy efficient approach to preserve the quality of service of WANETs. To address this issue, we propose an optimization-based medical data compression technique, which is robust to transmission errors.

We propose a fuzzy-logic-based route selection technique to deliver the compressed data that maximizes the lifetime of WANETs. The technique is fully distributed and does not use any geographical/location information. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed work with simulation results. The results show that the proposed work effectively maintains connectivity of WANETs and prolongs network lifetime.

A detection technique for identity based attacks in clustered mobile ad-hoc networks

Decentralized networks such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are susceptible to many types of security attacks. Ideally, each node in a MANET should be associated with only one identity, but suchnetworks are not equipped with a mechanism that can check whether one physical device is bound to exactly one identity or more. As a consequence, a malicious node can easily obtain more than one identity and behave as many independent nodes in the network.

Such an attack comes under the category of identity based attacks and has a potential to disrupt the normal functioning of the network in many ways. In this paper, a detection mechanism has been proposed to find out the attacker which fools the other nodes in the network by using more than one identity at a time. The detection approach is based on the fact that all the illegitimately acquired identities of an attacker travel together on a single physical device.