Evaluation of routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV to enhance video transmission over Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Mobile Ad hocNetworks (MANETs) are becoming more important to wireless communications due to increasing popularity of mobile devices. The main challenge for future wireless networks is the quality of service for consumer satisfaction. The tool is supporting us with instant video transmissions such as video conferences and webinars. Multiple network hops are necessary to deliver and exchange data across a network Each Mobile node also performs as a router which forwards the packets to their nearest hop and thus finally the packet reaches to the destination.

First, describes the uniqueness of Mobile Ad hoc Networks and their Routing protocol, and second a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) which consists of set mobile wireless nodes and one fixed wireless server are design using ns-2. In this research paper simulation of threeMANET routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV are done on the basis of three performance parameters i.e. Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), End-to-End delay and Throughput.

An efficient and secure method for quality video streaming in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Nowadays video streaming technique is becoming more popular with rapid growth in multimedia applications. Real time distortion less video streaming requires high quality of service at the user end. Actually it is delay sensitive for limited resources in wireless environment. In this paper, we have analyzed efficient and secure method for quality video streaming using different routing protocols namely Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP), Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV), and Directed Diffusion (DDIFF) protocols on Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET). Ensuring security by using cryptography approach in MANET is a very challenging issue.

In this paper, we are using the symmetric cryptography approach based on Rijndael Algorithm of Advance Encryption Standard (RA-AES) to maintain desired security level for quality video streaming among various nodes. We have analyzed the entire above mention routing protocols on the basis of different performance matrices such as throughput, end-to-end delay, energy consumption and normalized routing load. The simulation and data analysis have been done with the help of NetworkSimulator tool (NS-2) and MATLAB

Improvement on location based data dissemination protocol in mobile ad hoc network

In Todays communication system we preferred to those Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in which have self configuring nature, without any central infrastructure, peer to peer communication. Multihop Broadcast protocols are designed for disseminating the message in network effectively. There is novel 3-phase handshake gossiping protocol the Distance Based Handshake Gossiping, the Valency Based Handshake Gossiping, the Average Valency Based Handshake Gossiping.

In these protocols signal message is used to find the local information like neighbor of the nodes. These signal messages generate overhead for the network. In this paper we try to reduce the number of signal message and improve the performance of novel 3-phase handshake gossiping protocol.

A simulation approach for analysis of multi-hop connectivity in cognitive radio ad-hoc networks

In this paper, we investigate the multi-hop connectivity in cognitive radio ad-hoc networks (CRAHNs). Specifically, we propose an algorithm to check the multi-hop connectivity of two arbitrary secondary nodes with random nodes’ locations and primary nodes’ active states as inputs. Then, we use statistical simulation approach with our proposed algorithm to obtain the overall multi-hop connectivity in CRAHNs.

We also compare multi-hop connectivity in CRAHNs with conventional ad-hoc networks(AHNs). The simulation results with various network parameters in this paper show that multi-hop connectivity in CRAHNs is always lower than that in AHNs. Multi-hop connectivity has inverse u-shape and is relieved as primary node density decreases. Moreover, multi-hop connectivity in both CRAHNs and AHNs increases and reaches saturation point as secondary node density increases.

Detection of node-misbehavior using overhearing and autonomous agents in wireless Ad-Hoc networks

In Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, nodes co-operate among themselves to forward data packets from a source node to a destination node. Nodes may participate in route discovery or route maintenance process but refuse to forward packets due to presence of faulty hardware or software or to save their resources, such as, battery power and bandwidth. Detection and isolation of misbehavior nodes are important issues to improve the quality of communication service and to save resources of well behaving wireless nodes. In this work, firstly, a neighbor Overhearing based Misbehavior Detection(OMD) scheme is proposed. In OMD, each node overhears the transmissions of its neighbors and calculates packet forwarding ratio of its own as well as its neighbors.

Source node uses the calculated information to identify a misbehaving node. Secondly, an Autonomous Agent based Misbehavior Detection( AAMD) technique is proposed. In AAMD, past behavior of nodes in the networkis used as a metric to calculate the selection probability of a node. An agent residing at a node is activated using the activation key generated by a trusted third party to verify the misbehavior of the node. The proposed schemes reduce communication overheads and identification delays to detect misbehaving nodes in wireless ad-hoc network. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed OMD and AAMD schemes.

Cooperative reinforcement learning approach for routing in ad hoc networks

Most of the routing algorithms over ad hoc networks are based on the status of the link (up or down). They are not capable of adapting the run time changes such as traffic load, delay and delivery time to reach to the destination etc, thus though provides shortest path, these shortest path may not be optimum path to deliver the packets. Optimum path can only be achieved when quality of links within the network is detected on continuous basis instead of discrete time.

Thus for achieving optimum routes we model ad hoc routing as a cooperative reinforcement learning problem. In this paper, agents are used to optimize the performance of a network on trial and error basis. This learning strategy is based work in swarm intelligence: those systems whose design is inspired by models of social insect behaviour. This paper describes the algorithm used in cooperative reinforcement learning approach and performs the analysis by comparing with existing routing protocols.

Bio-Inspired Routing Algorithms Survey for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) play a key role in the design and development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that aim to improve road safety and transportation productivity. VANETs cover vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications. One of the most important challenges of this type of network is the timely and reliable dissemination of messages among vehicular nodes that enable drivers to take appropriate decisions to improve road safety. In the past decade, many routing protocols for VANETs that can support reliability and safety requirements have been proposed.

These protocols suffer from several limitations, including complexity, lack of scalability to large scale networks, routing overheads, etc. To address these limitations, various bio-inspired approaches have been proposed to route packets among vehicular nodes in an optimized manner. We survey recent proposed bio-inspired routing algorithms for the VANET environment. In particular, we identify the key features, strengths, and weaknesses of these algorithms and compare them by using various criteria. Moreover, we propose a unified formal model of the bio-inspired multimodular approaches applied to VANET routing. We highlight main future research directions in this area.

Scalability in ad hoc networks under hierarchical architectures

In this paper, it is proposed a model based on the truncated geometric distribution, which allows to characterize the available resources in an ad hoc network under a hierarchical architecture and then, estimate a growth factor which represents the appropriate relation between the available resources on two successive layers of the network, that guarantee an established quality level of communications.

There were designed three simulation scenarios on ns-3 software for hierarchical architectures of two layers and it was shown that the growth of resources between the layers of an ad hoc network can be expressed using a linear model.

Impact of Location Popularity on Throughput and Delay in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

With the advent of smart portable devices and location-based applications, user’s mobility pattern is found to be highly dependent on varying locations. In this paper, we analyze asymptotic throughput-delay performance of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) under a location popularity based scenario, where users are more likely to visit popular locations. This work provides a complementary perspective compared with previous studies on fundamental scaling laws for MANETs, mostly assuming that nodes move uniformly in the network. Specifically, we consider a cell-partitioned network model with cells of known popularity, which follows a Zipf’s law distribution with popularity exponent α. We first conduct the analysis under traditional store-carry-forward paradigm, and find that location heterogeneity affects thenetwork performance negatively, which is due to the waste of potential transmission opportunities in popular cells.

Motivated by this observation, we further propose a novel store-carry-accelerate-forward paradigm to enhance the network communication, exploiting these potential transmissions. Theoretical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms all delay-capacity results obtained in conventional scheme for any α. In particular, when α = 1, it can achieve a constant capacity with an average delay of Θ(√n) (except for a polylogarithmic factor), while the delay is Θ(n) in conventional scheme. And by letting α = 0, our results can cover Neely’s scaling laws. Moreover, we show that the delay-capacity tradeoff ratio satisfies ≥Θ(√n), revealing that exploiting location popularity can effectively improve the performance in MANETs.

Optimal Discrete Power Control in Poisson-Clustered Ad Hoc Networks

Power control in a digital handset is practically implemented in a discrete fashion, and usually, such a discrete power control (DPC) scheme is suboptimal. In this paper, we first show that in a Poison-distributed ad hoc network, if DPC is properly designed with a certain condition satisfied, it can strictly work better than no power control (i.e., users use the same constant power) in terms of average signal-to-interference ratio, outage probability, and spatial reuse. This motivates us to propose an N-layer DPC scheme in a wireless clustered ad hoc network, where transmitters and their intended receivers in circular clusters are characterized by a Poisson cluster process on the plane ℝ2. The cluster of each transmitter is tessellated into N-layer annuli with transmit power Pi adopted if the intended receiver is located at the ith layer.

Two performance metrics of transmission capacity (TC) and outage-free spatial reuse factor are redefined based on the N-layer DPC. The outage probability of each layer in a cluster is characterized and used to derive the optimal power scaling law Pi ∈ Θ(ηi-(α/2)), with ηi as the probability of selecting power Pi and α as the path loss exponent. Moreover, the specific design approaches to optimize Pi and N based on ηi are also discussed. Simulation results indicate that the proposed optimal N-layer DPC significantly outperforms other existing power control schemes in terms of TC and spatial reuse.