CDRA: Cluster-based dynamic routing approach as a development of the AODV in vehicular ad-hoc networks

Over the last few decades, the researchers have been fascinated towards vehicular networks. Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is a highly dynamic wheeled network where the on road vehicles and road – side units considered as nodes to allow the wireless communication. Each node acts as the host in VANETs. Due to high dynamic nature of VANETs the mobility pattern and the networktopologies change frequently, that make it differ from the other type of ad-hoc network The challenge of this research is a crucial designing for dynamic routing protocol in VANETs.

This paper proposes a cluster-based approach for dynamic routing in VANETs. This new routing approach have an aim of increasing the overall network throughput, delivery ratio with less normalized routing load in comparison of AODV Extensive simulations are carried out in NS2 to appraise the efficiency of the proposed cluster-based routing approach.

An efficient fuzzy-based power control scheme for ad hoc networks

Pervasive computing devices frequently rely upon wireless ad hoc connections to exchange information with neighboring systems. The density of these types of wireless transactions will steadily increase as the Internet of Things (IoT) expands. To mitigate the growing demand for wireless bandwidth, the available frequency bands can be more effectively shared and reused through the use of transmission power control (TPC). There are several advantages to taking a fuzzy-based approach to TPC; however, existing fuzzy control proposals are primarily designed for cognitive radios and use inputs that are unavailable to ordinary ad hoc networks.

Our contribution is the presentation of a lightweight fuzzy-based controller that is designed for resource-constrained nodes in ad hoc networks. By using only two commonly available radio hardware metrics, our controller reduces the computational overhead and improves the response time of the power control cycle when compared to other fuzzy-based TPC designs.

On Notification Message Re-broadcasting for the Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing Method in Ad Hoc Networks to Counter Eavesdropping of Data Packets

Ad hoc networks are autonomous distributed networks which consist of wireless terminals (referred to as “nodes”). In ad hoc networks, transferred data packets can be stolen by malicious relaying nodes and can be eavesdropped on by malicious nodes on paths within the broadcast range. To counter the stealing of transferred data packets, the secret sharing scheme-based secure dispersed data transfer method has been proposed [1][2][3]. In this method, multiple encrypted data (referred to as “shares”) are created from the original data. The original data can be decrypted by collecting more than the pre-determined threshold number of shares. To avoid decryption using stolen transferred shares, the routing ID-based node-disjoint multipath scheme for ad hoc networks has been proposed [4][5][6]. This method selects the three shortest of available node-disjoint multiple paths and transmits data packets along the paths.

In this method, however, since the broadcast range of the paths can overlap, malicious eavesdropping nodes can decrypt the original data. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the overlap of node-disjoint multiple paths in the broadcast area. In this paper, we propose a new node-disjoint multipath routing method to counter the eavesdropping of data packets. In our proposed method, the paths are constructed to attempt to prevent the overlap of broadcast areas. By reducing the overlap, our proposed method attempts to prevent the eavesdropping of shares. We have implemented our proposed method on a simulator, and have conducted experiments in terms of both the data packet delivery ratio and the confidentiality of transferred data packets. We have confirmed that the number of eavesdropped data packets in our proposed method is smaller than that in the existing method.

Path-Permutation Codes for End-to-End Transmission in Ad Hoc Cognitive Radio Networks

Cognitive radios (CRs) improve the spectrum efficiency in wireless communications. Nonetheless, owing to the intrinsic randomness of ad hoc cognitive radio networks (CRNs), e.g., the opportunistic links, the traditional realization of ad hoc networking that demands the end-to-end control information, is unscalable and impractical. A virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) framework has been recently developed for the realization of error-resilient end-to-end transmission without the necessity of feedback information. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end path-permutation coded (PPC) transmission in which one relay path is accessed at a time and the transmission is hopped among multiple relay paths.

The hopping order is specified by a permutation array that encodes the data, meaning that the data is conveyed by the order of indices of the accessed paths. With the PPC scheme, the control overhead and data processing complexity of the end-to-end transmission become relatively low. The PPC technique can also be utilized as a multiuser technique. At the destination node, a joint sphere decoder efficiently implements the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability decoding that simultaneously identifies the order of accessed paths and erasures. Comprehensive theoretical analyses and simulations are conducted to demonstrate the superior performance of the PPC technique in ad hocCRNs.

Advanced security gateways for heterogeneous tactical ad hoc networks

Secure and reliable communication is very important for a lot of different use cases. One major area of application is Network Enabled Capabilities (NEC). Security and reliability are even harder to achieve for the tactical domain, when different nations with a variety of communication technologies have to form a heterogeneous ad hoc network. CoNSIS (Coalition Networks for Secure Information Sharing) is a multinational project which aims at developing, implementing, testing, and demonstrating technologies and methods that will facilitate the participants’ abilities to share information and services securely inad-hoc coalitions, and between military and civil communication systems, within the communications constraints of mobile tactical forces.

Based on the results obtained from the field tests, this paper proposes an enhanced model for the interaction between a tactical router and a security gateway. Our integrated approach uses encrypted tunnels for the security gateway which are set up automatically by the routing instance. Furthermore, multicast traffic is encrypted separately without tunneling, whereas forwarding is done by the operating system kernel on the basis of the tunnel devices. This approach can be seen as a generic link layer encryption with ad hoc capabilities based on IPsec. It still allows using the broadcast capabilities of the radio devices for multicast and broadcast traffic.