Communication Projects

Communication projects is two or more of a collection devices to share  their instructions and also designed for an information process projects.

Architecture in Communication projects are as follows:

  • Architecture is also named as network design or network model
  • It is an overall design of a network
  • Mainly focus on function of a network
  • Commonly two main architectures which are;
    • Client/server architecture
    • And also in Peer-peer architecture
Network Topology:
  • In communication topology may also be wired or wireless
  • Wired technology includes the following cable types:
    • Coaxial cable
    • ITU-T
    • Twisted pair
    • And also in optical fiber
Basic requirements of protocols:
  • Data formats also for data exchange
  • Address formats also for data exchange
  • In Address mapping
  • Routing
  • Detection of transmission errors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Loss of information – timeouts and also retries
  • Direction of information flow
  • Sequence control
  • And also in Flow control
  • Protocols are also named as standards
  • It also uses set of rule for message communication
  • Protocols may be
    • Internet protocols
    • Routing protocols
    • Network protocols
    • And also in Tunneling protocols
Types of Network Protocols

The most common network protocols are:

  • Ethernet
  • Local Talk
  • Token Ring
  • FDDI
  • and also in ATM
Tunneling protocols:

Tunneling protocols plays vital role in network communication

  • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
  • L2F (Layer Two Forwarding)
  • IPSec
  • And Also based on L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol)

# Generation of code and also movements
$ns at 10.0 “$node_(0) setdest 250.0 250.0 3.0”
$ns at 15.0 “$node_(1) setdest 45.0 285.0 5.0”
$ns at 110.0 “$node_(0) setdest 480.0 300.0 5.0”

# Set a TCP connection between node_(0) and also node_(1)
set tcp [new Agent/TCP/Newreno]
$tcp set class_ 2
set sink [new Agent/TCPSink]
$ns attach-agent $node_(0) $tcp
$ns attach-agent $node_(1) $sink
$ns connect $tcp $sink
set ftp [new Application/FTP]
$ftp attach-agent $tcp
$ns at 10.0 “$ftp start”

# Printing also the window size
proc plotWindow {tcpSource file} {
global ns
set time 0.01
set now [$ns now]
set cwnd [$tcpSource set cwnd_]
puts $file “$now $cwnd”
$ns at [expr $now+$time] “plotWindow $tcpSource $file” }
$ns at 10.1 “plotWindow $tcp $windowVsTime2”

# Define node initial position also in nam
for {set i 0} {$i < $val(nn)} { incr i } {
# 30 defines the node size for nam
$ns initial_node_pos $node_($i) 30}

# Telling nodes when also the simulation ends
for {set i 0} {$i < $val(nn) } { incr i } {
$ns at $val(stop) “$node_($i) reset”;