Energy efficient green routing protocol for Internet of Multimedia Things

Internet of Things (IoT) envisions the notion of ubiquitous connectivity of `everything’. However, the current research and development activities have been restricted to scalar sensor data based IoT systems, thus leaving a gap to benefit from services and application enabled by `multimedia things’ or Internet of Multimedia Things (IoMT). Moreover, a crucial issue for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) community is the steer increase in CO2 emissions, which mandates green communication to reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint emissions. Recently, IETF ROLL working group standardized an IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) for resource constrained devices. RPL builds a tree-like network topology based on some network metric optimization using RPL Objective Functions.

Previous RPL implementations for scalar sensor data communication are not feasible for IoMT, since multimedia traffic pose distinct network requirements. The goal of this paper is to design an enhanced version of RPL for IoMT in which the sensed information is essentially provided by the multimedia devices. Our proposed RPL implementation minimizes carbon footprint emissions and energy consumption, along with the incorporation of application specific Quality of Service requirements. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme a simulation study is carried out in Cooja simulator for Contiki-OS, which suggests significant gains in terms of energy efficiency and delay.

Effective Key Management in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been deployed for a wide variety of applications, including military sensing and tracking, patient status monitoring, traffic flow monitoring, where sensory devices often move between different locations. Securing data and communications requires suitable encryption key protocols. In this paper, we propose a certificateless-effective key management (CL-EKM) protocol for secure communication in dynamic WSNs characterized by node mobility.

The CL-EKM supports efficient key updates when a node leaves or joins a cluster and ensures forward and backward key secrecy. The protocol also supports efficient key revocation for compromised nodes and minimizes the impact of a node compromise on the security of other communication links. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol is effective in defending against various attacks. We implement CL-EKM in Contiki OS and simulate it using Cooja simulator to assess its time, energy, communication, and memory performance.

Energy-efficient privacy homomorphic encryption scheme for multi-sensor data in WSNs

The recent advancements in wireless sensor hardware ensures sensing multiple sensor data such as temperature, pressure, humidity, etc. using a single hardware unit, thus defining it as multi-sensor data communication in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The in-processing technique of data aggregation is crucial in energy-efficient WSNs; however, with the requirement of end-to-end data confidentiality it may prove to be a challenge. End-to-end data confidentiality along with data aggregation is possible with the implementation of a special type of encryption scheme called privacy homomorphic (PH) encryption schemes. This paper proposes an optimized PH encryption scheme for WSN integrated networks handling multi-sensor data.

The proposed scheme ensures light-weight payloads, significant energy and bandwidth consumption along with lower latencies. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented in this paper with respect to the existing scheme. The working principle of the multi-sensor data framework is also presented in this paper along with the appropriate packet structures and process. It can be concluded that the scheme proves to decrease the payload size by 56.86% and spend an average energy of 8-18 mJ at the aggregator node for sensor nodes varying from 10-50 thereby ensuring scalability of the WSN unlike the existing scheme.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory based trust management strategy against cooperative black hole attacks and gray hole attacks in MANETs

The MANETs have been experiencing exponential growth in the past decade. However, their vulnerability to various attacks makes the security problem extremely prominent. The main reasons are its distributed, self-organized and infrastructure independent natures. As concerning these problems, trust management scheme is a common way to detect and isolate the compromised nodes when a cryptography mechanism shows a failure facing inner attacks. Among huge numbers of attacks, black hole attack may collapse the network by depriving the route of the normal communication. The conventional proposed method achieved good performance facing black hole attack, while failing to detect gray hole attacks.

In this paper, a Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence based trust management strategy is proposed to conquer not only cooperative black hole attack but also gray hole attack. In the proposed method, a neighbour observing model based on watchdog mechanism is used to detect single black hole attack by focusing on the direct trust value (DTV). Historical evidence is also taken into consideration to go against gray hole attacks. Then, a neighbour recommendation model companied with indirect trust value (ITV) is used to figure out the cooperative black hole attack. D-S evidence theory is implemented to combine ITVs from different neighbours. Some of the neighbour nodes may declare a false ITV, which effect can also be diminished through the proposed method. The simulation is firstly conducted in the Matlab to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Then the security routing protocol is implemented in the GloMoSim to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy. Both of them show good results and demonstrate the advantages of proposed method by punishing malicious actions to prevent the camouflage and deception in the attacks.

Why do drivers change route? effect of graphical route information panels

Studies that explore drivers’ decision behaviour under the graphical route information panels (GRIPs) via the discrete choice models have rarely been reported. In this paper, drivers’ route choice response to the GRIPs is quantitatively analysed by using the discrete choice models through a case study of a real-life GRIP in Shanghai, China. A logit model for predicting the route choice probabilities is developed to capture the relationship between the route choice probability, the driver attributes and the GRIP messages, respectively.

The modelling results show that the drivers who have a larger annual driving mileage, access the traffic information via the electronic message signs in daily life highly value the GRIPs and drive their car mainly for the commuting purpose are more likely to divert from the original route to the alternate route under the GRIP; a driver’s perceived delay of the original route has a positive effect on his diversion decision under the GRIP; there exist differences in the GRIP response behaviour; the drivers are more likely to divert when the GRIP displays `red’ to indicate severe congestion on the original route; the female drivers are more sensitive to `red’ and more likely to divert.

Platform for Multiagent Application Development Incorporating Accurate Communications Modeling

Multiagent systems are widely recognized as a method of choice for realization of distributed time-critical applications for the smart grid. However, no general solutions have been proposed for the difficult task of system development and validation, ready for deployment, which would fully account for the underlying communication network performance. We propose a novel platform designed for this purpose, which integrates a standard multiagent development framework [Java Agent Development (JADE)] and an industry standard communications network simulator (OPNET modeler). It was realized through generic extensions of the JADE framework to provide discrete event scheduling capabilities, while the OPNET modeler was extended to provide a generic method of associating the network nodes with agents running in JADE.

The adopted method adheres to the high-level architecture standard. Importantly, applications developed using this platform may be deployed on the target system without manual modifications. A distributed protection application is presented and the performance is analyzed with respect to candidate agent behaviors and communication scenarios, demonstrating that the feasibility of the application critically depends on the choices made during its design and implementation.

Swarm Intelligence based File Replication and Consistency Maintenance in Structured P2P File Sharing Systems

In peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication helps to avoid overloading file owners and improve file query efficiency. There exists a tradeoff between minimizing the number of replicas (i.e., replication overhead) and maximizing the replica hit rate (which reduces file querying latency). More replicas lead to increased replication overhead and higher replica hit rates and vice versa. An ideal replication method should generate a low overhead burden to the system while providing low query latency to the users. However, previous replication methods either achieve high hit rates at the cost of many replicas or produce low hit rates.

To reduce replicas while guaranteeing high hit rate, this paper presents SWARM, a file replication mechanism based on swarm intelligence. Recognizing the power of collective behaviors, SWARM identifies node swarms with common node interests and close proximity. Unlike most earlier methods, SWARM determines the placement of a file replica based on the accumulated query rates of nodes in a swarm rather than a single node. Replicas are shared by the nodes in a swarm, leading to fewer replicas and high querying efficiency. In addition, SWARM has a novel consistency maintenance algorithm that propagates an update message between proximity-close nodes in a tree fashion from the top to the bottom. Experimental results from the real-world PlanetLab testbed and the PeerSim simulator demonstrate the effectiveness of the SWARM mechanism in comparison with other file replication and consistency maintenance methods. SWARM can reduce querying latency by 40%-58%, reduce the number of replicas by 39%-76%, and achieves more than 84% higher hit rates compared to previous methods. It also can reduce the consistency maintenance overhead by 49%- 99% compared to previous

Performance evaluation of Dynamic Multilevel Priority (DMP) packet scheduling method for wireless sensor networks (WSNs)

There are many real time environment in which the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is growing, especially the applications like military, health monitoring, security monitoring etc. WSN is nothing but collection of small, tiny sensor nodes which is having resource constraints like battery life. Therefore many research comes on WSNs are targeted on improving the energy efficiency of WSNs and extend the lifetime. In this paper, we are focusing to work on packet scheduling scheme which plays vital role to improve the energy efficiency and QoS performances. Currently there are many packet scheduling schemes used by researchers in WSNs applications such as First Come First Serve (FCFS), preemptive priority scheduling, non-preemptive priority scheduling methods. However this method suffered from limitations like higher routing overhead, more end to end delay and hence more energy consumption.

In this paper, we are aiming to investigate new algorithm which overcomes the limitations of this existing method and achieves the better QoS and less energy consumption results. The investigated algorithm is called Dynamic Multilevel Priority (DMP) scheduling method. As the name indicates, this method works dynamically and as per the requirement of packet scheduling. There are three queues used by this algorithm for priority scheduling and applications like real time, non-real time. In first queue, real time packets processed with highest priority. In second queue, non-real time data packets processed with highest priority than third queue. In third queue, non real time data packets those are sensed at local are processed. The practical evaluation of this method is done using NS2.

Communication Optimization of Iterative Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiply on GPUs and FPGAs

Trading communication with redundant computation can increase the silicon efficiency of FPGAs and GPUs in accelerating communication-bound sparse iterative solvers. While k iterations of the iterative solver can be unrolled to provide O(k) reduction in communication cost, the extent of this unrolling depends on the underlying architecture, its memory model, and the growth in redundant computation. This paper presents a systematic procedure to select this algorithmic parameter k, which providescommunication-computation tradeoff on hardware accelerators like FPGA and GPU. We provide predictive models to understand this tradeoff and show how careful selection of k can lead to performance improvement that otherwise demands significant increase in memory bandwidth.

On an Nvidia C2050 GPU, we demonstrate a 1.9×-42.6× speedup over standard iterative solvers for a range of benchmarks and that this speedup is limited by the growth in redundant computation. In contrast, for FPGAs, we present an architecture-aware algorithm that limits off-chip communication but allowscommunication between the processing cores. This reduces redundant computation and allows large k and hence higher speedups. Our approach for FPGA provides a 0.3×-4.4× speedup over same-generation GPU devices where k is picked carefully for both architectures for a range of benchmarks.

Design & development of daughter board for Raspberry Pi to support Bluetooth communication using UART

Reliable and secured communication between two or more devices require wired connection. A wireless communication such as – Bluetooth, WI-Fi, ZigBee etc. provides flexible and inexpensive solution for remote applications. A large number of low cost hardware platforms such as Raspberry Pi, Arduino, mbed boards etc. are available that do not provide any inbuilt wireless module but are equipped with UART, I2C ports for design and development of Internet of Things (IoT) and embedded applications. Designers face the difficulty to use such a low cost hardware for wireless communicationin order to implement these applications.

In this paper, Design & Development of Daughter Board for Raspberry Pi to support Bluetooth Communication using UART is proposed as an integrated solution. Results of various QoS parameters such as transmission rate, file format(text, pdf, image & audio), baud ratesand range for Bluetooth communication between two devices are presented. The result shows that Bluetooth module is capable of transmitting files of same size in different format approximately in same time. Proposed solution can further be extended to different protocols such as Wi-Fi and ZigBee etc.