Why do drivers change route? effect of graphical route information panels

Studies that explore drivers’ decision behaviour under the graphical route information panels (GRIPs) via the discrete choice models have rarely been reported. In this paper, drivers’ route choice response to the GRIPs is quantitatively analysed by using the discrete choice models through a case study of a real-life GRIP in Shanghai, China. A logit model for predicting the route choice probabilities is developed to capture the relationship between the route choice probability, the driver attributes and the GRIP messages, respectively.

The modelling results show that the drivers who have a larger annual driving mileage, access the traffic information via the electronic message signs in daily life highly value the GRIPs and drive their car mainly for the commuting purpose are more likely to divert from the original route to the alternate route under the GRIP; a driver’s perceived delay of the original route has a positive effect on his diversion decision under the GRIP; there exist differences in the GRIP response behaviour; the drivers are more likely to divert when the GRIP displays `red’ to indicate severe congestion on the original route; the female drivers are more sensitive to `red’ and more likely to divert.

Can you trust your fridge?

The Internet of Things has been touted as many things. But what you haven’t heard is that it could be your worst enemy. Yet all of these incidents have actually occurred, according to news reports. And it’s likely that even more disturbing transgressions have been taking place unbeknownst to homeowners. For example, researchers have discovered that in some cases, they can hack the Internet of Things to intercept each document you print and divert it to a remote site, use your smart TV to bug your house, and even control the tramc light on the corner outside your home.

The vulnerabilities lie all around you. An HP Research study reported that the average Internet of Things gadget has an astounding 25 security flaws, and 70 percent have at least one such vulnerability. Many of these problems may yield to solutions like those adopted by the personal computer industry decades ago. There are also some that require new approaches that take into account the vast scale and narrow profit margin of the emerging world of Internet augmented products.

By-Passing Infected Areas in Wireless Sensor Networks Using BPR

Abnormalities in sensed data streams indicate the spread of malicious attacks, hardware failure and software corruption among the different nodes in a wireless sensor network. These factors of node infection can affect generated and incoming data streams resulting in high chances of inaccurate data, misleading packet translation, wrong decision making and severe communication disruption. This problem is detrimental to real-time applications having stringent quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. The sensed data from other uninfected regions might also get stuck in an infected region should no prior alternative arrangements are made. Although several existing methods (BOUNDHOLE and GAR) can be used to mitigate these issues, their performance is bounded by some limitations, mainly the high risk of falling into routing loops and involvement in unnecessary transmissions.

This paper provides a solution to by-pass the infected nodes dynamically using a twin rolling balls technique and also divert the packets that are trapped inside the identified area. The identification of infected nodes is done by adapting a Fuzzy data clustering approach which classifies the nodes based on the fraction of anomalous data that is detected in individual data streams. This information is then used in the proposed by-passed routing (BPR) which rotates two balls in two directions simultaneously: clockwise and counter-clockwise. The first node that hits any ball in any direction and is uninfected, is selected as the next hop. We are also concerned with the incoming packets or the packets-on-the-fly that may be affected when this problem occurs. Besides solving both of the problems in the existing methods, the proposed BPR technique has greatly improved the studied QoS parameters as shown by almost 40 percent increase in the overall performance.

How Tangential Problems Limit Value Creation in IT-Based Service Systems

Service systems create value through interactions among people and technology. Though information technology (IT), such as those that support electronic commerce, are key resources in IT-based service systems, it is the people in the system, the computer system administrators, who play the most critical role in making these systems work. In our ethnographic studies of IT service delivery, we found that system administrators typically spend much time troubleshooting.

We observed that while configuration and performance work is often guided by explicit procedures or plans, troubleshooting work is not. Problems are handled case-by-case. Our observations also reveal that a substantial fraction of time spent troubleshooting is on issues related only tangentially to the primary problem. These tangential problems divert time and energy from the primary problem. Although tangential problems tax the overall service system, there may be opportunities to identify and remediate them to improve overall service delivery and value co-creation.

Value Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Early Visual Cortex Codes Monetary Value of Objects during a Diverted Attention Task

A central concern in the study of learning and decision-making is the identification of neural signals associated with the values of choice alternatives. An important factor in understanding the neural correlates of value is the representation of the object itself, separate from the act of choosing. Is it the case that the representation of an object within visual areas will change if it is associated with a particular value? We used fMRI adaptation to measure the neural similarity of a set of novel objects before and after participants learned to associate monetary values with the objects. We used a range of both positive and negative values to allow us to distinguish effects of behavioral salience (i.e., large vs. small values) from effects of valence (i.e., positive vs. negative values).

During the scanning session, participants made a perceptual judgment unrelated to value. Crucially, the similarity of the visual features of any pair of objects did not predict the similarity of their value, so we could distinguish adaptation effects due to each dimension of similarity. Within early visual areas, we found that value similarity modulated the neural response to the objects after training. These results show that an abstract dimension, in this case, monetary value, modulates neural response to an object in visual areas of the brain even when attention is diverted.

Round-robin based load balancing in Software Defined Networking

These days our networks have to handle large amount of traffic, serve thousands of clients. It is very difficult for a single server to handle such huge load. The solution is to use multiple servers with load balancer acting as a front end. The clients will send the requests to the load balancer. The load balancer will forward the client requests to different servers depending upon load balancing strategy. Load balancer use dedicated hardware. That hardware is expensive and inflexible. Currently available load balancers contain few algorithms that can be used.

Network administrators can not create their own algorithms since traditional load balancer are vendor locked, non programmable. On the other hand SDN load balancers are programmable and allow you to design and implement your own load balancing strategy. Other advantages of SDN load balancer is we do not need dedicated hardware. The dumb silicon device can be converted to a powerful load balancer by using SDN controllers. In this paper we are implementing and comparing Round-Robin load balancing strategy with already implemented random strategy using an OpenFlow switch connected to a POX controller.

Effective Key Management in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been deployed for a wide variety of applications, including military sensing and tracking, patient status monitoring, traffic flow monitoring, where sensory devices often move between different locations. Securing data and communications requires suitable encryption key protocols. In this paper, we propose a certificateless-effective key management (CL-EKM) protocol for secure communication in dynamic WSNs characterized by node mobility.

The CL-EKM supports efficient key updates when a node leaves or joins a cluster and ensures forward and backward key secrecy. The protocol also supports efficient key revocation for compromised nodes and minimizes the impact of a node compromise on the security of other communication links. A security analysis of our scheme shows that our protocol is effective in defending against various attacks. We implement CL-EKM in Contiki OS and simulate it using Cooja simulator to assess its time, energy, communication, and memory performance.

RF performance of InGaAs-based T-gate junctionless field-effect transistors which applicable for high frequency network systems

The T-gate InGaAs-based JLFET’s which has high frequency RF characteristics have been demonstrated by TCAD tool. To achieve advanced performance of RF characteristics, the T-gate structure is applied, also.

By T-gate structure we decrease gate resistance (RG) and achieve a higher maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) compare with planar-type structure. However, the increase of parasitic gate capacitance degrades current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and this trade-off between parasitic components and optimal device structure will be discussed.

Design of full adder and subtractor based on MZI — SOA

A systematic model for all-optical full adder as well as full subtractor is proposed based on principle of Mach Zehnder Interferometer and using Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (MZI-SOA) configuration. MZI plays a role for ultra fast all-optical signal processing, here the non-linear property of SOA are properly utilized for designing the full adder as well as full subtractor. In this model the full adder as well as full subtractor can be effectively designed by properly selecting output terminals of MZI-SOA component.

The design is implemented with the help of OptiSystem software which is one of the powerful software for analyzing Optical components. The proposed mode shows design performance of full adder as well as full subtractor in optical domain and it seems to be future wireless technology.

Centralized ARP proxy server over SDN controller to cut down ARP broadcast in large-scale data center networks

Today’s cloud services are driving the wide-spread deployment of multi-tenant large-scale data centers. These data centers must have agility in order to provide diverse services to users in an efficient way, via dynamic allocation of the virtual machines (VMs) to the servers. However, as the complexity and the size of the data centers have increased, the tremendous address resolution traffic among the massive numbers of VMs has become a significant problem. Some approaches have tried to reduce the ARP broadcast traffic via distributed cache on the switches, or location specific addresses, but this has resulted in unavoidable challenging issues, such as the inconsistency problem between caches and/or address re-allocation to the VM and network reconfiguration whenever the VM migrates.

In this paper, we propose a new centralized ARP proxy model that utilizes the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller architecture, in which we can leverage the SDN’s centralized control characteristics. In this approach, the SDN controller performs the ARP proxy function, and can significantly reduce the number of ARP broadcast messages over the networks. We prototyped the centralized ARP proxy module on an open-source SDN controller and performed experiments on the Mininet based virtual testbed to evaluate our approach. The experiments show that our approach efficiently processes address resolution while reducing ARP broadcast traffic by dozens of times to hundreds of times.