Dempster-Shafer evidence theory based trust management strategy against cooperative black hole attacks and gray hole attacks in MANETs

The MANETs have been experiencing exponential growth in the past decade. However, their vulnerability to various attacks makes the security problem extremely prominent. The main reasons are its distributed, self-organized and infrastructure independent natures. As concerning these problems, trust management scheme is a common way to detect and isolate the compromised nodes when a cryptography mechanism shows a failure facing inner attacks. Among huge numbers of attacks, black hole attack may collapse the network by depriving the route of the normal communication. The conventional proposed method achieved good performance facing black hole attack, while failing to detect gray hole attacks.

In this paper, a Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence based trust management strategy is proposed to conquer not only cooperative black hole attack but also gray hole attack. In the proposed method, a neighbour observing model based on watchdog mechanism is used to detect single black hole attack by focusing on the direct trust value (DTV). Historical evidence is also taken into consideration to go against gray hole attacks. Then, a neighbour recommendation model companied with indirect trust value (ITV) is used to figure out the cooperative black hole attack. D-S evidence theory is implemented to combine ITVs from different neighbours. Some of the neighbour nodes may declare a false ITV, which effect can also be diminished through the proposed method. The simulation is firstly conducted in the Matlab to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Then the security routing protocol is implemented in the GloMoSim to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy. Both of them show good results and demonstrate the advantages of proposed method by punishing malicious actions to prevent the camouflage and deception in the attacks.

Why do drivers change route? effect of graphical route information panels

Studies that explore drivers’ decision behaviour under the graphical route information panels (GRIPs) via the discrete choice models have rarely been reported. In this paper, drivers’ route choice response to the GRIPs is quantitatively analysed by using the discrete choice models through a case study of a real-life GRIP in Shanghai, China. A logit model for predicting the route choice probabilities is developed to capture the relationship between the route choice probability, the driver attributes and the GRIP messages, respectively.

The modelling results show that the drivers who have a larger annual driving mileage, access the traffic information via the electronic message signs in daily life highly value the GRIPs and drive their car mainly for the commuting purpose are more likely to divert from the original route to the alternate route under the GRIP; a driver’s perceived delay of the original route has a positive effect on his diversion decision under the GRIP; there exist differences in the GRIP response behaviour; the drivers are more likely to divert when the GRIP displays `red’ to indicate severe congestion on the original route; the female drivers are more sensitive to `red’ and more likely to divert.

Platform for Multiagent Application Development Incorporating Accurate Communications Modeling

Multiagent systems are widely recognized as a method of choice for realization of distributed time-critical applications for the smart grid. However, no general solutions have been proposed for the difficult task of system development and validation, ready for deployment, which would fully account for the underlying communication network performance. We propose a novel platform designed for this purpose, which integrates a standard multiagent development framework [Java Agent Development (JADE)] and an industry standard communications network simulator (OPNET modeler). It was realized through generic extensions of the JADE framework to provide discrete event scheduling capabilities, while the OPNET modeler was extended to provide a generic method of associating the network nodes with agents running in JADE.

The adopted method adheres to the high-level architecture standard. Importantly, applications developed using this platform may be deployed on the target system without manual modifications. A distributed protection application is presented and the performance is analyzed with respect to candidate agent behaviors and communication scenarios, demonstrating that the feasibility of the application critically depends on the choices made during its design and implementation.

Swarm Intelligence based File Replication and Consistency Maintenance in Structured P2P File Sharing Systems

In peer-to-peer file sharing systems, file replication helps to avoid overloading file owners and improve file query efficiency. There exists a tradeoff between minimizing the number of replicas (i.e., replication overhead) and maximizing the replica hit rate (which reduces file querying latency). More replicas lead to increased replication overhead and higher replica hit rates and vice versa. An ideal replication method should generate a low overhead burden to the system while providing low query latency to the users. However, previous replication methods either achieve high hit rates at the cost of many replicas or produce low hit rates.

To reduce replicas while guaranteeing high hit rate, this paper presents SWARM, a file replication mechanism based on swarm intelligence. Recognizing the power of collective behaviors, SWARM identifies node swarms with common node interests and close proximity. Unlike most earlier methods, SWARM determines the placement of a file replica based on the accumulated query rates of nodes in a swarm rather than a single node. Replicas are shared by the nodes in a swarm, leading to fewer replicas and high querying efficiency. In addition, SWARM has a novel consistency maintenance algorithm that propagates an update message between proximity-close nodes in a tree fashion from the top to the bottom. Experimental results from the real-world PlanetLab testbed and the PeerSim simulator demonstrate the effectiveness of the SWARM mechanism in comparison with other file replication and consistency maintenance methods. SWARM can reduce querying latency by 40%-58%, reduce the number of replicas by 39%-76%, and achieves more than 84% higher hit rates compared to previous methods. It also can reduce the consistency maintenance overhead by 49%- 99% compared to previous

Performance evaluation of Dynamic Multilevel Priority (DMP) packet scheduling method for wireless sensor networks (WSNs)

There are many real time environment in which the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is growing, especially the applications like military, health monitoring, security monitoring etc. WSN is nothing but collection of small, tiny sensor nodes which is having resource constraints like battery life. Therefore many research comes on WSNs are targeted on improving the energy efficiency of WSNs and extend the lifetime. In this paper, we are focusing to work on packet scheduling scheme which plays vital role to improve the energy efficiency and QoS performances. Currently there are many packet scheduling schemes used by researchers in WSNs applications such as First Come First Serve (FCFS), preemptive priority scheduling, non-preemptive priority scheduling methods. However this method suffered from limitations like higher routing overhead, more end to end delay and hence more energy consumption.

In this paper, we are aiming to investigate new algorithm which overcomes the limitations of this existing method and achieves the better QoS and less energy consumption results. The investigated algorithm is called Dynamic Multilevel Priority (DMP) scheduling method. As the name indicates, this method works dynamically and as per the requirement of packet scheduling. There are three queues used by this algorithm for priority scheduling and applications like real time, non-real time. In first queue, real time packets processed with highest priority. In second queue, non-real time data packets processed with highest priority than third queue. In third queue, non real time data packets those are sensed at local are processed. The practical evaluation of this method is done using NS2.

Communication Optimization of Iterative Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiply on GPUs and FPGAs

Trading communication with redundant computation can increase the silicon efficiency of FPGAs and GPUs in accelerating communication-bound sparse iterative solvers. While k iterations of the iterative solver can be unrolled to provide O(k) reduction in communication cost, the extent of this unrolling depends on the underlying architecture, its memory model, and the growth in redundant computation. This paper presents a systematic procedure to select this algorithmic parameter k, which providescommunication-computation tradeoff on hardware accelerators like FPGA and GPU. We provide predictive models to understand this tradeoff and show how careful selection of k can lead to performance improvement that otherwise demands significant increase in memory bandwidth.

On an Nvidia C2050 GPU, we demonstrate a 1.9×-42.6× speedup over standard iterative solvers for a range of benchmarks and that this speedup is limited by the growth in redundant computation. In contrast, for FPGAs, we present an architecture-aware algorithm that limits off-chip communication but allowscommunication between the processing cores. This reduces redundant computation and allows large k and hence higher speedups. Our approach for FPGA provides a 0.3×-4.4× speedup over same-generation GPU devices where k is picked carefully for both architectures for a range of benchmarks.

Energy-Efficient Information and Communication Infrastructures in the Smart Grid: A Survey on Interactions and Open Issues

Smart grid has modernized the way electricity is generated, transported, distributed, and consumed by integrating advanced sensing, communications, and control in the day-to-day operation of the grid. Electricity is a core utility for the functioning of society and for the services provided by information andcommunication technologies (ICTs). Several concepts of the smart grid, such as dynamic pricing, distributed generation, and demand management, have significantly impacted the operation of ICT services, in particular, communication networks and data centers. Ongoing energy-efficiency and operational expenditures reduction efforts in communication networks and data centers have gained another dimension with those smart grid concepts. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey on the smart grid-driven approaches in energy-efficient communications and data centers, and the interaction between smart grid and information and communication infrastructures.

Although the studies on smart grid, energy-efficient communications, and green data centers have been separately surveyed in previous studies, to this end, research that falls in the intersection of those fields has not been properly classified and surveyed yet. We start our survey by providing background information on the smart grid and continue with surveying smart grid-driven approaches in energy-efficient communicationsystems, followed by energy, cost and emission minimizing approaches in data centers, and the corresponding cloud network infrastructure. We discuss the open issues in smart grid-driven approaches in ICTs and point some important research directions such as the distributed renewable energy generation capability-coupled communication infrastructures, optimum energy-efficient network design for the smart grid environment, the impact of green communication techniques on the reliability and latency requirements of smart grid data, workload consolidation with smart grid-awareness, and many more.

A Visible Light Communication Link Protection Mechanism for Smart Factory

In recent years, wireless networks and applications have achieved marvelous successes in government, enterprise, home, and personal communication systems. The desired features of wirelesscommunications draw lots of attention to the industrial communication and expected to bring benefits such as reduce deployment and maintenance after employed. However, the industrial communicationsystem required real-time communication, which means the control systems in the factory are required accurate control and rapid communication, such as the industrial motion control system. In this type of application, the communication system performance and efficiency will be evaluated to ensure it applicable to the industrial network.

However, there are a few original issues in the wirelesscommunication, such as fading, multipath propagation and interference problems, which will affect the reliability and performance of industrial communication system operation. Therefore, we proposed a connection protection mechanism that cooperates with wireless network and visible lightcommunication to achieve reliability and performance in industrial communication network. We will consider implementing this mechanism by using industrial wireless Ethernet in the near future.

Toward a learned project-specific fault taxonomy: application of software analytics

This position paper argues that fault classification provides vital information for software analytics, and that machine learning techniques such as clustering can be applied to learn a project- (or organization-) specific fault taxonomy.

Anecdotal evidence of this position is presented as well as possible areas of research for moving toward the posited goal.

RF performance of InGaAs-based T-gate junctionless field-effect transistors which applicable for high frequency network systems

The T-gate InGaAs-based JLFET’s which has high frequency RF characteristics have been demonstrated by TCAD tool. To achieve advanced performance of RF characteristics, the T-gate structure is applied, also. By T-gate structure we decrease gate resistance (RG) and achieve a higher maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) compare with planar-type structure.

However, the increase of parasitic gate capacitance degrades current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and this trade-off between parasitic components and optimal device structure will be discussed.