communication Projects

In communication two or a collection of devices share instructions and information

Communication Architecture:

  • Architecture is also named as network design or network model
  • It is an overall design of a network
  • Mainly focus on function of a network
  • Commonly two main architectures which are;
    • Client/server architecture
    • Peer-peer architecture

Network Topology:

  • In communication topology may be wired or wireless
  • Wired technology includes the following cable types:
    • Coaxial cable
    • ITU-T
    • Twisted pair
    • optical fiber

Basic requirements of protocols:

  • Data formats for data exchange
  • Address formats for data exchange
  • Address mapping
  • Routing
  • Detection of transmission errors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Loss of information – timeouts and retries
  • Direction of information flow
  • Sequence control
  • Flow control


  • Protocols are also named as standards
  • It uses set of rule for message communication
  • Protocols may be
    • Internet protocols
    • Routing protocols
    • Network protocols
    • Tunneling protocols

Types of Network Protocols

The most common network protocols are:

  • Ethernet
  • Local Talk
  • Token Ring
  • FDDI
  • ATM

Tunneling protocols:

Tunneling protocols plays vital role in network communication

  • PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
  • L2F (Layer Two Forwarding)
  • L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol)
  • IPSec


# Generation of movements
$ns at 10.0 “$node_(0) setdest 250.0 250.0 3.0”
$ns at 15.0 “$node_(1) setdest 45.0 285.0 5.0”
$ns at 110.0 “$node_(0) setdest 480.0 300.0 5.0”

# Set a TCP connection between node_(0) and node_(1)
set tcp [new Agent/TCP/Newreno]
$tcp set class_ 2
set sink [new Agent/TCPSink]
$ns attach-agent $node_(0) $tcp
$ns attach-agent $node_(1) $sink
$ns connect $tcp $sink
set ftp [new Application/FTP]
$ftp attach-agent $tcp
$ns at 10.0 “$ftp start”

# Printing the window size
proc plotWindow {tcpSource file} {
global ns
set time 0.01
set now [$ns now]
set cwnd [$tcpSource set cwnd_]
puts $file “$now $cwnd”
$ns at [expr $now+$time] “plotWindow $tcpSource $file” }
$ns at 10.1 “plotWindow $tcp $windowVsTime2”

# Define node initial position in nam
for {set i 0} {$i < $val(nn)} { incr i } {
# 30 defines the node size for nam
$ns initial_node_pos $node_($i) 30}

# Telling nodes when the simulation ends
for {set i 0} {$i < $val(nn) } { incr i } {
$ns at $val(stop) “$node_($i) reset”;